BACKGROUND: Microbes that govern a unique biochemical process of oxidizing ammonia into dinitrogen gas, such as anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) have been reported to play a pivotal role in agricultural soils and in oceanic environments. However, limited information for anammox bacterial abundance and distribution in the terrestrial habitats has been known.
METHODS AND RESULTS: Phylogenetic and next-generation sequencing analyses of bacterial 16S rRNA gene were performed to examine potential anammox bacteria in paddy soils. Through clone libraries constructed by using the anammox bacteria-specific primers, some clones showed sequence similarities with Planctomycetes (87% to 99%) and anammox bacteria (94% to 95%). Microbial community analysis for the paddy soils by using Illumina Miseq sequencing of 16S rRNA gene at phylum level was dominated by unclassified Bacteria at 33.2 ± 7.6%, followed by Chloroflexi at 20.4 ± 2.0% and Acidobacteria at 17.0 ± 6.5%. Planctomycetes that anammox bacteria are belonged to was 1.5% (± 0.3) on average from the two paddy soils.
CONCLUSION: We suggest evidence of anammox bacteria in the paddy soil. In addition to the relatively well-known microbial processes for nitrogen-cycle, anammox can be a potential contributor on the cycle in terrestrial environments such as paddy soils.