BACKGROUND: Bisphenol A (BPA) is a chemical widely used in polycarbonate plastics, epoxy resins. BPA is an endocrine disruptor. Residue of BPA in agricultural environments is a major concern. The objective of this study was to understand the characteristics of the uptake and distribution of BPA and its metabolites introduced into the agricultural environment to crops, and to use it as basic data for further research on reduction of BPA in agricultural products.
METHODS AND RESULTS: This study established the analysis method of BPA and its metabolites in soil and crops, and estimated the intake of BPA and its metabolites from lettuce (Lactuca sativa) grown in sandy loam and loam soil, which are representative soils in Korea. The two major metabolites of BPA were 4-hydroxyacetophenone (4-HAP) and 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (4-HBA). BPA, 4-HAP and 4-HBA have been analyzed by using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). These substances were detected in sandy loam and loam soil, indicated that some BPA was converted to 4-HAP and 4-HBA in the soil, however, it was observed that only 4-HBA migrates to lettuce through the roots into crops.
CONCLUSION: The uptake residues showed the BPA and 4-HAP were not detected in lettuces grown on sandy loam (SL) and loam (L) soil treatments that were applied with of 10 ng/g, 50 ng/kg and 500 ng/g of BPA. However, the 4-HBA were detected at the level of 7 ng/g and 11 ng/g in the lettuce grown in sandy loam and loam soil that were treated with the 500 ng/g of BPA, respectively, while the 8 ng/g of 4-HBA was measured in the lettuce cultivated into the loam that was treated with 100 ng/g of BPA. This result presents that the BPA persisting in the soil of the pot was absorbed through the lettuce roots and then distributed in the lettuce leaves at the converted form of 4-HBA, what is the oxidative metabolite of BPA.